Valentine's Day: superstitions, spanking and secret love notes
The Valentine's Day holiday of love so is much more than petrol station flowers and silent meals for two
For some, Valentine's Day means an inconvenient rush for flowers and last-minute dinner reservations - for others, it's the most romantic time of the year.
Love it or hate it, 14 February is here. So brush up on the history, customs and superstitions of Valentine's Day, and see if inspiration strikes.
History of Valentine's Day
Like Halloween, the origins of Valentine's Day are rooted in Paganism, specifically in a Pagan fertility festival known as Lupercalia, says National Geographic. The festival - which was "wildly popular" until the fifth century AD - was celebrated annually on 15 February. It was customary for men to use whips fashioned from the skins of a goat or dog to spank young maidens in order to increase fertility - "an early form IVF if you will," remarks Tom Chivers in the Daily Telegraph.
The festival was so popular that the young Christian Church was unable to stop Pagans taking part, and so it eventually began to label it a Christian celebration, linking it to the legend of St Valentine.
St Valentine was executed by the Roman Emperor Claudius II after he was caught performing secret marriage ceremonies, which were at the time prohibited by the emperor in an attempt to strengthen his army.
The story goes that Valentine sent a final love note to his jailer’s daughter signed, "From your Valentine", and thus Valentine's Day was born.
Valentine's Day customs
In Saxon England, gloves were the customary token of love from a man to a woman, while years ago in Norwich, admirers would leave packages with the message: "Good-morrow to you, Valentine," on the doorstep of their loved ones and then ring the bell and run away.
Young men and women in the Middle Ages used to draw names from a bowl to choose their Valentine and then wear the name on their sleeve for a week, resulting in the saying: "To wear your heart on your sleeve."
Greeting cards were not part of the tradition until more recently because parchment had been scarce and few people were literate. The introduction of the penny postage and envelopes saw the Valentine card became popular in the late 19th century. They were decorated with lace, velvet and satin ribbons, often with messages hidden behind secret panels, and traditionally sent anonymously – so suitors could hide from strict Victoria fathers, according to one theory. Later, it became more common to send a printed card with a love message in the form of a verse.
Valentine's Day around the world
Japan: Japanese chocolate companies make half their annual sales in the week leading up to Valentine's Day, although it’s not men shelling out their hard-earned cash. In Japan it's traditional for women to do the spoiling. It's not all rosy for the boys though – they are expected to return the favour on White Day, which falls on 14 March.
South Korea: In Korea they take it a step further. As well as celebrating Valentine's Day and White Day, they also mark Black Day (14 April), on which people not in relationships meet in restaurants to eat black noodles and mourn/celebrate being single.
Finland and Estonia: Here Valentine’s Day is as much a celebration of friendship as it is romantic love and in both languages the name given to 14 February translates as Friend's Day.
Wales: In Wales most people celebrate Dydd Santes Dwynwen on 25 January, a day which commemorates St Dwynwen, the patron saint of Welsh lovers.
Valentine's Day superstitions
According to the Ancient Greek and Roman practice of ornithomancy (and the Daily Telegraph), the first bird an unmarried woman spots on Valentine's Day will tell her all she needs to know about the occupation and financial position of her true love.
Here's the list of birds to look for and those to avoid:
Blackbird: he'll be involved in charitable or spiritual work – an aid worker of vicar
Dove: your marriage to him will be happy and loving
Robin: he earns his living through water – a naval officer or fisherman
Sparrow: he works with the land – a farmer or tree surgeon
Blue bird: he likes to make others smile – a comedian
Woodpecker: no marriage will take place
Duck: your relationship with him will be homely and stable
Gull: he travels a great deal for work
Birds of prey: he is a businessman, politician or leader
Goldfinch: he is a person of means
Kingfisher: he has already done well or inherited money
Pigeon: he will eventually return to the place where he grew up
Valentine's Day roses
Different meanings are ascribed to roses according to their colour. Here are our favourites:
Love: red roses signify romantic love and are by far the most popular colour of flower given to loved ones on February 14.
Lust: If you can’t keep your hands off each other, then an orange rose says it all - a flower synonymous with passion and enthusiasm.
The one: If you are madly in love and looking for a less predictable token of your affection then give purple roses, they symbolise love at first sight.
Friends: Perhaps you’re just friends - a yellow rose is symbolic of both friendship and joy.
Thanks: Give a pink rose and you are showing a loved one appreciation and gratitude.
Careful: A white rose could be a bit of a gamble as white is generally considered a symbol of both purity and remembrance. It’s a popular decoration for funerals.